The northern expedition and the long
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Google Scholar Copyright information. Following his defection, Xia launched an attack on Sun-controlled Shanghai, but was almost immediately forced to withdraw back to Zhejiang; Sun had detected Xia's plans days earlier. Chiang would accept this post in a ceremony on 9 July, which marked the formal start of the Northern Expedition, although military clashes had already been ongoing.
Whilst Wu and most of his army fled north to Henan province, his remaining troops in the walled city held out for over a month. The nationalists regarded the December Memorandum as lip service, while Britain was still determined to maintain her interests in China.
All are to be decided now in this time of battle … so as to restore independence and freedom to our Chinese race". In other words, she did not intend to retreat unconditionally, and was firmly against the violent seizure or recovery of treaty rights by the nationalists. In six months, the nationalists had expanded their control to seven provinces, inhabited by a population of about million people. The nationalists regarded the December Memorandum as lip service, while Britain was still determined to maintain her interests in China. At least 5, of these were taken prisoner, along with their rifles, providing a boost to KMT forces. Download preview PDF. In order to maintain her interests, Britain needed international co-operation even more than before, but cooperation was again difficult to achieve because Britain was the only country that needed it. Following his defection, Xia launched an attack on Sun-controlled Shanghai, but was almost immediately forced to withdraw back to Zhejiang; Sun had detected Xia's plans days earlier. Mikhail Borodin , the official liaison between the KMT and the Soviet government in Moscow, had spent years cultivating this alliance, while covertly encouraging CPC expansion. Wilbur, The Nationalist Revolution in China —28 Wang Jingwei refused to join the new government, as did Tang Shengzi, who became an independent warlord in his own right, controlling Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsi, and parts of Anhui.
The nationalist government had moved from Guangzhou to the new city of Wuhanwhich was formed from a merger of Wuchang and two other nearby cities. With his forces in disarray, Sun's commander in the area, Meng Chao-yuehdecided on 17 February to abandon Hangzhou and flee with his 20, troops by train to Jiangsu province.
Many of Sun's northern troops, demoralised by defeat, broke ranks and streamed north, looting the towns and villages they passed along the way.
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