This notion was adapted and spread out by the modern, industrialized Western nation states, and exported to some degree to their colonies and areas of influence.
We will cover each of these topics in this chapter, looking at trends across the globe and seeking ascertain what scholars know about better and worse forms of educational provision. Educators are the main actors at this level; B the level of institutions schools, pre-schools, kindergartens, universities, etc.
In section 3, we consider facilitators and barriers to education as a means to social progress.
There are no such answers from this report of experts, although there are elegant questions and perspectives on how to think about these problems. Rigorous measurement of social performance, alongside traditional economic indicators, is crucial to starting the virtuous circle by which GDP growth improves social and environmental performance in ways that drive even greater economic success.
And because resources are increasingly limited, sovereign states are increasingly prone to fight or disrupt others who seem to have different values and priorities.
On the supply side, for the modern nation states, public education was considered a tool for social cohesion and citizenship, and a means to develop the human resources necessary for running the state and enhancing the economy.
Various United Nations declarations consider primary and secondary education as a basic right that must be guaranteed to every child. Private households were increasingly willing and able to pay for education, but state institutions often lacked the fiscal and administrative capacities to meet this increasing demand both from households as well as employers.
And that will help societies make better choices, create stronger communities, and enable people to lead more fulfilling lives.
There is one unifying theme across all six policy domains—the perennial debate over the role of markets versus the state. Change is coming, but whether the old order will shatter and reform into a more just and orderly future, the one comfort we have is that the experts are no better than any one of us.
In fact, a first and foremost recommendation would be that in considering and devising governance reforms, policy-makers need to take into institutional, political and social contexts as well as policy legacies and path dependencies.
In higher education, decentralization would allow universities to develop individual profiles, building on their respective strengths.