They concluded that they could not wait for change—they had to make it. Through the s and much of the s, the NAACP initiated suits that dismantled aspects of the edifice of segregated education, each building on the precedent of the previous one.
Many southern political leaders claimed the desegregation decision violated the rights of states to manage their systems of public education, and they responded with defiance, legal challenges, delays, or token compliance.
It prevented housing discrimination based on race, sex, national origin and religion. Refusing to stand down, protestors moved forward and were viciously beaten and teargassed by police and dozens of protestors were hospitalized. Virginia State Board of Elections in In addition, another argument emphasized how "'education' comprehends the entire process of developing and training the mental, physical and moral powers and capabilities of human beings".
Yet segregation was a social, political, and economic system that placed African Americans in an inferior position, disfranchised them, and was enforced by custom, law, and official and vigilante violence.
The "X" is also the brand that many slaves received on their upper arm. Inthe state reopened the investigation.